THE HISTORIC MANUSCRIPTS OF ABDIRAHMAN BIN ISMAIL AL-JABARTI (DA’UD/DAROD)

THE HISTORIC MANUSCRIPTS OF ABDIRAHMAN BIN ISMAIL AL-JABARTI (DA’UD/DAROD)

 

 

THE COLLECTION OF THE EGYPTIAN COUNCIL FOR THE GENEALOGY AND PRIOR HERITAGES FROM EARLY WRITTEN OF ARAB HASHIMITES OF AQELEYOON

 

Retrieved 1938-through translation from original Arabic contemporary tribal history of south Arabian Peninsula (Yemenite)

Revised 2004-april with the help of the supreme council of aqeleyoon

Original rights of this tribal history is the intellectual of Abu Al-hasan Ali ibn al-husayn ibn Ali Al-Mas’udi

Prior achieves- 956 CE

The book of   Aqeeliyoon

The supreme council for the genealogy of the Hashemite

Riyadh -Saudi Arabia, Cairo-Egypt, Hadru mout-Yemen

Jointly collected by the ministries of culture and heritage of the governments of Yemen and Saudi Arabia

 

 

Abdirahman bin Isma’il al-Jabarti, also known as Darod or Dawud, is the man traditionally held to be the common ancestor of the Somali Darod clan. According to early Islamic books and local tradition, Abdirahman is believed to have descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, a member of the Banu Hashim and the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad.Authors such as Ibn HawqalAl-Muqaddasi and Ibn Said have confirmed the early presence of Arabian tribes in municipalities such asBerberaZeila, Jabarta (an old metropolis now in ruins) and Massawa in the northern Horn of Africa.

 

Al-Masudi wrote about the specific Arabian families and tribes that lived in Jabarta and Zeila in his 9th century book Aqeeliyoon. This book sheds light on one individual, a Sufi Sheikh of the Qadiriyyah order called Isma’il ibn Ibrahim al-Jabarti, who fathered several children, one of which was named Abdirahman.

 

According to such early Islamic books and Somali tradition, Muhammad ibn Aqil’s descendant Abdirahman bin Isma’il al-Jabarti (Darod) fled his homeland in the Arabian Peninsula after an argument with his uncle. During the 10th or 11th century CE, he is believed to have then settled in northern Somalia just across the Red Sea and married Dobira, the daughter of the Dir chief, which is said to have given rise to the Darod clan family.

 

According to the British anthropologist and Somali Studies veteran I.M. Lewis, while the traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to the Prophet are most probably expressions of the importance of Islam in Somali society, “there is a strong historically valid component in these legends which, in the case of the Darod, is confirmed in the current practice of a Dir representative officiating at the ceremony of installation of the chief of the Darod family.

 

A similar clan mythology exists for the Isaaq, who are said to have descended from one Sheikh Ishaq ibn Ahmad al-’Alawi, another Banu Hashim who came to Somalia around the same time. As with Sheikh Isaaq, there are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Darod’s travels, works and overall life in northern Somalia, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival.

 

Besides historical sources such as Al-Masudi’s Aqeeliyoon, a modern manaaqib (a collection of glorious deeds) printed inCairo in 1945 by Sheikh Ahmad bin Hussen bin Mahammad titled Manaaqib as-Sheikh Ismaa’iil bin Ibraahiim al-Jabarti also discusses Sheikh Darod and his proposed father Isma’il al-Jabarti, the latter of whom is reportedly buried in Bab Siham in the Zabid District of western Yemen.

 

According to the British anthropologist and Somali Studies veteran I.M. Lewis, while the traditions of descent from noble Arab families related to the Prophet are most probably expressions of the importance of Islam in Somali society, “there is a strong historically valid component in these legends which, in the case of the Darod, is confirmed in the current practice of a Dir representative officiating at the ceremony of installation of the chief of the Darod family.

 

A similar clan mythology exists for the Isaaq, who are said to have descended from one Sheikh Ishaq ibn Ahmad al-’Alawi, another Banu Hashim who came to Somalia around the same time. As with Sheikh Isaaq, there are also numerous existing hagiologies in Arabic which describe Sheikh Darod’s travels, works and overall life in northern Somalia, as well as his movements in Arabia before his arrival. Besides historical sources such as Al-Masudi’s Aqeeliyoon, a modern manaaqib (a collection of glorious deeds) printed in Cairo in 1945 by Sheikh Ahmad bin Hussen bin Mahammad titled Manaaqib as-Sheikh Ismaa’iil bin Ibraahiim al-Jabarti also discusses Sheikh Darod and his proposed father Isma’il al-Jabarti, the latter of whom is reportedly buried in Bab Siham in the Zabid District of western Yemen.

 

Sheikh Darod’s own tomb is in Haylaan, situated in the Hadaaftimo Mountains in northern Somalia, and is the scene of frequent pilgrimages. Sheikh Isaaq is buried nearby inMaydh, as is Sheikh Harti, a descendant of Sheikh Darod and the progenitor of the Harti Darod sub-clan, whose tomb lies in the ancient town of Qa’ableh. Sheikh Darod’s mawlid (birthday) is also celebrated every Friday with a public reading of his manaaqib.

 

According to many medieval and modern Islamic historians, Darod is descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, the uncle of the Prophet and brother of Ali ibn Abi Talib. An ancient Islamic history book, called Aqeeliyoon by Al-Masudi, talks in detail about the descendants of Aqeel ibn Abi Talib, wherein Darod is also mentioned.

Somali clan also knew Banu Da’ud (بنو داؤود‎). The father of this clan is named Da’ud (Nick named Abdir_Arahman) bin Isma’il Al-Jabarti Al-Zabidi Al-Aqeeli, but is more commonly known as Darod. The word Darod is said it was a changed word which was originally Dawud as in Arabic writing there could be miss-pronunciation of the word as the letters w and r could be mistaken in writting “Dawud = داوود orداؤود ،Darod = دارود‎ ‎”. also they say, in the Somali language, the word Daarood means “an enclosed compound,” a conflation of the two words daar ((compound although the word daar originated from arabic word دار)) and ood (place enclosed by wall, trees, woods, fence, etc.). According to Al-Masudi, Darod, Originally derived from Dawud.

 

Da’ud bin Isma’il Al-Jabarti Al-Zabidi Al-Aqeeli, migrated with his followers from ZabidYemen to ZeylaSomalia He is the same Abdirahman bin Isma’il Al-Jabarti after his nickname took over his name and his original has changed from da’ud to Darood by locals ((Dawud = داوود orداؤود ، Darod = دارود‎ )). He is the one who is burried in Heylan, Somalia. The father of Da’ud Sufi Sheikh Isma’il al-Jabarti of the Qadiriyyah order is buried in the Zabid District.

Sheikh Da’ud (Abdir_Arahman) bin Isma’il(Daarood )and his wife Doonbira Dir who was the daughter of Dir himself, forefather of one of the Somali main clans, Dir clan and both of them were buried in HaylaanSomalia. According to early Islamic books of Al-Masudi and Ibn Yakut (who wrote about the specific Arabian families and tribes that lived in Jabarta and Zeila in his 9th century book Aqeeliyoon ) and local tradition, is believed that Daarood was descended from Aqeel ibn Abi Talib a member of the Banu Hashim and the cousin of the Prophet Muhammad.

Also it was written recently in the book of Sheikh Ahmed Bin Ali Al-Rajhi Al-Aqeeli about the aqeeliyoon Around the , and who is senior Ala-Aqeel and a member of the Supreme Council for the genealogy of the Hashemite (who is in Saudi Arabia) said rates of Daarood and date found about Sheikh Isma’il Al-Jabarti. (There is a book with him written by Isma’il Al-Jabarti Al-Zabidi Al-Aqeeli’s disciple.

 

The Encyclopaedia of Islam and the medieval historian Maqrizi (who wrote in 837 AH/1400s CE) mention the city of Jabarti – a metropolitan Islamic city near the Somali port of Zayla. Travellers from Yemen and along the Aden coast visited and settled in the city. The city of Zayla included settlers Hashemite clans who were descendants of Aqeel b. Abi Talib, Muhammad al-Hanafiyya b. Ali b. Abi Talib, and Ba’Alawis who are descendants of the Prophet.

 

Some families who settled in the area took on the surname “Jabarti” – and as the author of Aqeeliyoon (The Descendants of Aqeel) writes; the surname doesn’t necessarily signify (Hashemite) lineage but rather that they were once residents of the popular city.

There is also a city named “Jabra” 40 miles from Tarim, Hadramout , hence, we can verify that one of  ancestors carried the laqb”Jabarti” because he was from Jabra. Hence, a Somali tribe of Darood al-Jabarti was explicitly discovered by Al-Masudi and his book of Aqeeliyoon hypothesizes that Darood comes from Dawud and they are descendants of Dawud b. Ismail b. Ibrahim al-Jabarti – the previously mentioned saint buried in Zabeed.

 

Lastly, Al-Masudi’s Historic book gives Sheikh Darod’s lineage as Abdirahmaan Bin Ismaa’iil Bin Ibraahim Bin Abdirahmaan Bin Muhammed Bin Abdi Samad Bin Hanbal Bin Mahdi Bin Ahmed Bin Abdalle Bin Muhammed Bin Aqail Bin Abu-Talib Bin Abdul-Mutalib Bin Hashim Bin Qusaya.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

  1. Rima Berns McGown, Muslims in the diaspora, (University of Toronto Press: 1999), pp.27-28
  2. Islam in Somali History Fact and Fiction revisited , the Arab Factor
  3. I.M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa-Somali, Afar and Saho, (The Red Sea Press: 1998), pp.140-142.
  4. Somaliland Society (1954). The Somaliland Journal, Volume 1, Issues 1-3. The Society. p. 85.
  5. I.M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), pp.128-129
  6.  I.M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho, Issue 1, (International African Institute: 1955), p.18-19
  7. Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage, Journal of African history, Volume 3, (Cambridge University Press.: 1962), p.45
  8.  I. M. Lewis, A pastoral democracy: a study of pastoralism and politics among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa, (LIT Verlag Münster: 1999), p.131.
  9.  I.M. Lewis, “The Somali Conquest of the Horn of Africa”, Journal of African History, 1 (1960), p. 219
  10. 10.  A. Bashar. (1958). the Arab Tribes Lost in Africa. Translated from Arabic originate, Vt. Cairo Egypt. Retrieved April 1964. PP 15-58
  11. 11.      A. Masudi , Aqeleyoon. (early manuscript achieves from (956) CE, Cairo, Egypt

 

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